LPL Financial Holdings Inc.
LPL Financial Holdings Inc. (Form: 8-K, Received: 02/28/2013 16:35:16)




UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, DC 20549


FORM 8-K


CURRENT REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF
THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934


February 22, 2013
Date of report (date of earliest event reported)

LPL Financial Holdings Inc.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

Delaware
001-34963
20-3717839
(State or other jurisdictions of incorporation or organization)
(Commission File Number)
(I.R.S. Employer Identification Nos.)

75 State Street
Boston MA 02109
(Address of principal executive offices) (Zip Code)

(617) 423-3644
(Registrant's telephone number, including area code)

N/A
(Former Name or Former Address, if Changed since Last Report)

Check the appropriate box below if the Form 8-K filing is intended to simultaneously satisfy the filing obligation of the registrants under any of the following provisions:
 
o
Written communications pursuant to Rule 425 under the Securities Act (17 CFR 230.425)

o
Soliciting material pursuant to Rule 14a-12 under the Exchange Act (17 CFR 240.14a-12)

o
Pre-commencement communications pursuant to Rule 14d-2(b) under the Exchange Act (17 CFR 240.14d-2(b))

o
Pre-commencement communications pursuant to Rule 13e-4(c) under the Exchange Act (17 CFR 240.13e-4(c))









Item 5.03
Amendments to Articles of Incorporation or Bylaws; Change in Fiscal Year.

On February 22, 2013, the Board of Directors of the Company approved an amendment of Section 2.4 of the Company's Third Amended & Restated Bylaws, relating to the calling of special meetings of the Board of Directors.

The Company's Fourth Amended and Restated Bylaws (the “Bylaws”), are filed as Exhibit 3.1 to this Current Report on Form 8-K, which is incorporated herein by reference.

Item 9.01
Financial Statements and Exhibits.
(d)

 
Exhibits.
 
 
 
3.1

 
Fourth Amended and Restated Bylaws of LPL Financial Holdings Inc., effective February 22, 2013.

 










SIGNATURE

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, the Registrant has duly caused this report to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned hereunto duly authorized.

LPL FINANCIAL HOLDINGS INC.
 
 
 
By:
/s/ Dan H. Arnold
 
Name: Dan H. Arnold
 
Title: Chief Financial Officer


Dated: February 28, 2013

    


 

 





Exhibit 3.1
LPL FINANCIAL HOLDINGS INC. (the “ Corporation ”)
FOURTH AMENDED & RESTATED BYLAWS
SECTION 1 - STOCKHOLDERS
               Section 1.1. Annual Meeting .
     An annual meeting of the stockholders for the election of directors to succeed those whose term expire and for the transaction of such other business as may properly come before the meeting shall be held at the place, if any, within or without the State of Delaware, on the date and at the time that the Board of Directors shall each year fix. Unless stated otherwise in the notice of the annual meeting of the stockholders of the Corporation, such annual meeting shall be at the principal office of the Corporation.
               Section 1.2. Advance Notice of Nominations and Proposals of Business .
     Following the first annual meeting of stockholders that occurs at least 90 days following the Corporation's public announcement that Hellman & Friedman Capital Partners V, L.P., Hellman & Friedman Capital Partners V (Parallel), L.P., Hellman & Friedman Capital Associates V, L.P. (collectively, “ H&F ”) and TPG Partners IV, L.P. (“ TPG ”), together with their respective affiliates or successors (collectively, the “ Sponsors ”), have ceased collectively to beneficially own (directly or indirectly) 40% or more of the Corporation's outstanding shares of common stock, the following provisions of this Section 1.2 shall apply:
          (a) Nominations of persons for election to the Board of Directors and proposals for other business to be transacted by the stockholders at an annual meeting of stockholders may be made (i) pursuant to the Corporation's notice with respect to such meeting (or any supplement thereto), (ii) by or at the direction of the Board of Directors or any committee thereof or (iii) by any stockholder of record of the Corporation who (A) was a stockholder of record at the time of the giving of the notice contemplated in Section 1.2(b), (B) is entitled to vote at such meeting and (C) has complied with the notice procedures set forth in this Section 1.2(a). Subject to Section 1.2(i), clause (iii) of this Section 1.2 shall be the exclusive means for a stockholder to make nominations or propose other business (other than matters properly brought pursuant to applicable provisions of federal law, including the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (as amended from time to time, the “ Act ”)) before an annual meeting of stockholders.
          (b) For nominations or other business to be properly brought before an annual meeting by a stockholder pursuant to clause (iii) of Section 1.2(a), (i) the stockholder must have given timely notice thereof in writing to the Secretary of the Corporation with the information contemplated by Section 1.2(c), and (ii) the business must be a proper matter for stockholder action under the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware (the “ DGCL ”). The notice requirements of this Section 1.2 shall be deemed satisfied by a stockholder with respect to business other than a nomination if the stockholder has notified the Corporation of his, her or its intention to present a proposal at an annual meeting in compliance with applicable rules and regulations promulgated under the Act and such stockholder's proposal has been included in a proxy statement prepared by the Corporation to solicit proxies for such annual meeting.
          (c) To be timely, a stockholder's notice must be delivered to the Secretary of the Corporation at the principal executive offices of the Corporation on a date (i) not later than the close of business on the 90 th day nor earlier than the close of business on the 120 th day prior to the anniversary date of the prior year's annual meeting or (ii) if there was no annual meeting in the prior year or if the date of the current year's annual meeting is more than 30 days before or after the anniversary date of the prior year's annual





meeting, on or before 10 days after the day on which the date of the current year's annual meeting is first disclosed in a public announcement. In no event shall any adjournment or postponement of an annual meeting or the announcement thereof commence a new time period for the delivery of such notice. Such notice from a stockholder must state (i) as to each nominee that the stockholder proposes for election or reelection as a director, (A) all information relating to such nominee that would be required to be disclosed in solicitations of proxies for the election of such nominee as a director pursuant to Regulation 14A under the Act and such nominee's written consent to serve as a director if elected, and (B) a description of all direct and indirect compensation and other material monetary arrangements, agreements or understandings during the past three years, and any other material relationship, if any, between or concerning such stockholder and its respective affiliates or associates, or others with whom they are acting in concert, on the one hand, and the proposed nominee, and his or her respective affiliates or associates, on the other hand; (ii) as to each proposal that the stockholder seeks to bring before the meeting, a brief description of such proposal, the reasons for making the proposal at the meeting, the text of the proposal or business (including the text of any resolutions proposed for consideration and in the event that such business includes a proposal to amend the bylaws of the Corporation, the language of the proposed amendment) and any material interest that the stockholder has in the proposal; and (iii) (A) the name and address of the stockholder giving the notice and the Stockholder Associate Person (as defined below), if any, on whose behalf the nomination or proposal is made, (B) the class (and, if applicable, series) and number of shares of stock of the Corporation that are, directly or indirectly, owned beneficially or of record by the stockholder or any Stockholder Associated Person (as defined below), (C) any option, warrant, convertible security, stock appreciation right or similar right with an exercise or conversion privilege or a settlement payment or mechanism at a price related to any class (or, if applicable, series) of shares of stock of the Corporation or with a value derived in whole or in part from the value of any class (or, if applicable, series) of shares of stock of the Corporation, whether or not such instrument or right shall be subject to settlement in the underlying class or series of capital stock of the Corporation or otherwise (each, a “ Derivative Instrument ”) directly or indirectly owned beneficially or of record by such stockholder or any Stockholder Associated Person and any other direct or indirect opportunity to profit or share in any profit derived from any increase or decrease in the value of shares of stock of the Corporation of the stockholder or any Stockholder Associated Person, (D) any proxy, contract, arrangement, understanding or relationship pursuant to which such stockholder or any Stockholder Associated Person has a right to vote any securities of the Corporation, (E) any proportionate interest in shares of the Corporation or Derivative Instruments held, directly or indirectly, by a general or limited partnership in which such stockholder or any Stockholder Associated Person is a general partner or beneficially owns an interest in a general partner, (F) any performance-related fees (other than an asset-based fee) that such stockholder or any Stockholder Associated Person is entitled to based on any increase or decrease in the value of the shares of stock of the Corporation or Derivative Instruments, (G) any other information relating to such stockholder and Stockholder Associated Person, if any, required to be disclosed in a proxy statement or other filing required to be made in connection with solicitations of proxies for, as applicable, the proposal and/or for the election of directors in an election contest pursuant to and in accordance with Section 14(a) of the Act, (H) a representation that the stockholder is a holder of record of the Corporation entitled to vote at such meeting and intends to appear in person or by proxy at the meeting to propose such business or nomination, and (I) whether either the stockholder intends to deliver a proxy statement and form of proxy to holders of, in the case of a proposal, at least the percentage of the Corporation's voting shares required under applicable law to carry the proposal or, in the case of a nomination or nominations, a sufficient number of holders of the Corporation's voting shares reasonably believed by such stockholder to be sufficient to elect such nominee or nominees or otherwise to solicit proxies or votes from stockholders in support of such proposal or nomination. For purposes of these bylaws, a “ Stockholder Associated Person ” of any stockholder means (i) any “affiliate” or “associate” (as those terms are defined in Rule 12b-2 under the Act) of the stockholder that owns beneficially or of record any capital stock or





other securities of the Corporation and (ii) any person acting in concert with such stockholder or any affiliate or associate of such stockholder with respect to the capital stock or other securities of the Corporation. In addition, any nominee proposed by a stockholder shall complete a questionnaire, in a form provided by the Corporation, within 10 days of receipt of the form of questionnaire from the Corporation.
          (d) Subject to the certificate of incorporation of the Corporation (the “ Certificate of Incorporation ”), Section 1.2(i) and applicable law, only persons nominated in accordance with procedures stated in this Section 1.2 shall be eligible for election as and to serve as a member of the Board of Directors and the only business that shall be conducted at an annual meeting of stockholders is the business that has been brought before the meeting in accordance with the procedures set forth in this Section 1.2. The chairman of the meeting shall have the power and the duty to determine whether a nomination or any proposal has been made according to the procedures stated in this Section 1.2 and, if any nomination or proposal does not comply with this Section 1.2, unless otherwise required by law, the nomination or proposal shall be disregarded.
          (e) For purposes of this Section 1.2, “public announcement” means disclosure in a press release reported by the Dow Jones News Service, Associated Press or a comparable news service or in a document publicly filed by the Corporation with the Securities and Exchange Commission pursuant to Section 13, 14 or 15(d) of the Act.
          (f) Notwithstanding the foregoing provisions of this Section 1.2, a stockholder shall also comply with all applicable requirements of the Act and the rules and regulations thereunder with respect to matters set forth in this Section 1.2. Nothing in this Section 1.2 shall affect any rights, if any, of stockholders to request inclusion of proposals in the Corporation's proxy statement pursuant to applicable provisions of federal law, including the Act.
          (g) Notwithstanding the foregoing provisions of this Section 1.2, unless otherwise required by law, if the stockholder (or a qualified representative of the stockholder) does not appear at the annual or special meeting of stockholders of the Corporation to present a nomination or proposed business, such nomination shall be disregarded and such proposed business shall not be transacted, notwithstanding that proxies in respect of such vote may have been received by the corporation. For purposes of this Section 1.2, to be considered a qualified representative of the stockholder, a person must be a duly authorized officer, manager or partner of such stockholder or must be authorized by a writing executed by such stockholder or an electronic transmission delivered by such stockholder to act for such stockholder as proxy at the meeting of stockholders and such person must produce such writing or electronic transmission, or a reliable reproduction of the writing or electronic transmission, at the meeting of stockholders.
          (h) Only such business shall be conducted at a special meeting of stockholders as shall have been brought before the meeting pursuant to the Corporation's notice of meeting. Nominations of persons for election to the Board of Directors may be made at a special meeting of stockholders at which directors are to be elected pursuant to the Corporation's notice of meeting (1) by or at the direction of the Board of Directors or any committee thereof or (2) provided that the Board of Directors has determined that directors shall be elected at such meeting, by any stockholder of the Corporation who is a stockholder of record at the time the notice provided for in this Section 1.2 is delivered to the Secretary of the Corporation, who is entitled to vote at the meeting and upon such election and who complies with the notice procedures set forth in this Section 1.2. In the event the Corporation calls a special meeting of stockholders for the purpose of electing one or more directors to the Board of Directors, any such stockholder entitled to vote in such election of directors may nominate a person or persons (as the case may be) for election to such position(s) as specified in the corporation's notice of meeting, if the stockholder's notice required by paragraph (b) of this Section 1.2 shall be delivered to the Secretary at the principal executive offices of the Corporation not earlier than the close of business on the 120 th day prior





to such special meeting and not later than the close of business on the later of the 90 th day prior to such special meeting or the tenth 10 th day following the day on which public announcement is first made of the date of the special meeting and of the nominees proposed by the Board of Directors to be elected at such meeting. In no event shall the public announcement of an adjournment or postponement of a special meeting commence a new time period (or extend any time period) for the giving of a stockholder's notice as described above.
          (i) All provisions of this Section 1.2 are subject to, and nothing in this Section 1.2 shall in any way limit the exercise, or the method or timing of the exercise of, the rights of any person granted by the Corporation to nominate directors.
               Section 1.3. Special Meetings; Notice .
     Special meetings of the stockholders of the Corporation may be called only in the manner set forth in the Certificate of Incorporation. Notice of every special meeting of the stockholders of the Corporation shall state the purpose or purposes of such meeting. Except as otherwise required by law, the business conducted at a special meeting of stockholders of the Corporation shall be limited exclusively to the business set forth in the Corporation's notice of meeting, and the individual or group calling such meeting shall have exclusive authority to determine the business included in such notice.
               Section 1.4. Notice of Meetings .
     Notice of the place, if any, date and time of all meetings of stockholders of the Corporation, the record date for determining the stockholders entitled to vote at the meeting (if such date is different from the record date for stockholders entitled to notice of the meeting) and the means of remote communications, if any, by which stockholders and proxy holders may be deemed present and vote at such meeting, and, in the case of all special meetings of stockholders, the purpose or purposes of the meeting, shall be given, not less than 10 nor more than 60 days before the date on which such meeting is to be held, to each stockholder entitled to notice of the meeting.
     The Corporation may postpone or cancel any previously called annual or special meeting of stockholders of the Corporation by making a public announcement (as defined in Section 1.2(e)) of such postponement or cancellation prior to the meeting. When a previously called annual or special meeting is postponed to another time, date or place, if any, notice of the place (if any), date and time of the postponed meeting, the record date for determining the stockholders entitled to vote at the meeting (if such date is different from the record date for stockholders entitled to notice of the meeting) and the means of remote communications, if any, by which stockholders and proxy holders may be deemed present and vote at such postponed meeting, shall be given in conformity with this Section 1.4.
     When a meeting is adjourned to another time or place, notice need not be given of the adjourned meeting if the time and place, if any, thereof and the means of remote communication, if any, by which stockholders and proxy holders may be deemed to be present and vote at such adjourned meeting are announced at the meeting at which the adjournment is taken; however , if the date of any adjourned meeting is more than 30 days, a notice of the adjourned meeting shall be given to each stockholder of record entitled to vote at the meeting, or if after the adjournment a new record date for stockholders entitled to vote is fixed for the adjourned meeting the Board of Directors shall fix a new record date for notice of such adjourned meeting in conformity herewith to each stockholder of record entitled to vote at such adjourned meeting as of the record date for notice of such adjourned meeting. At any adjourned meeting, any business may be transacted that may have been transacted at the original meeting.
               Section 1.5. Quorum .
     At any meeting of the stockholders, the holders of shares of stock of the Corporation entitled to cast a majority of the total votes entitled to be cast by the holders of all outstanding shares of capital stock of the





Corporation entitled to vote generally in the election of directors (“ Voting Stock ”), present in person or by proxy, shall constitute a quorum for all purposes, unless or except to the extent that the presence of a larger number is required by applicable law or the Certificate of Incorporation. If a separate vote by one or more classes or series is required, the holders of shares entitled to cast a majority of the total votes entitled to be cast by the holders of the shares of the class or classes or series, present in person or represented by proxy, shall constitute a quorum entitled to take action with respect to that vote on that matter.
     If a quorum shall fail to attend any meeting, the chairman of the meeting may adjourn the meeting to another place, if any, date and time.
               Section 1.6. Organization .
     The chairman of the Board or, in his or her absence, the person whom the Board of Directors designates or, in the absence of that person or the failure of the Board of Directors to designate a person, the Chief Executive Officer of the Corporation or, in his or her absence, the person chosen by the holders of a majority of the shares of capital stock entitled to vote who are present, in person or by proxy, shall call to order any meeting of the stockholders of the Corporation and act as chairman of the meeting. In the absence of the Secretary of the Corporation, the secretary of the meeting shall be the person the chairman appoints.
               Section 1.7. Conduct of Business .
     The chairman of any meeting of stockholders of the Corporation shall determine the order of business and the rules of procedure for the conduct of such meeting, including the manner of voting and the conduct of discussion as he or she determines to be in order. The chairman shall have the power to adjourn the meeting to another place, if any, date and time. The date and time of the opening and closing of the polls for each matter upon which the stockholders will vote at the meeting shall be announced at the meeting. Except to the extent inconsistent with such rules and regulations as adopted by the Board of Directors, the chairman of the meeting shall have the right and authority to convene and (for any or no reason) to adjourn the meeting, to prescribe such rules, regulations and procedures and to do all such acts as, in the judgment of such chairman, are appropriate for the proper conduct of the meeting. Such rules, regulations or procedures, whether adopted by the Board of Directors or prescribed by the chairman of the meeting, may include, without limitation, the following: (i) the establishment of an agenda or order of business for the meeting; (ii) rules and procedures for maintaining order at the meeting and the safety of those present; (iii) limitations on attendance at or participation in the meeting to stockholders entitled to vote at the meeting, their duly authorized and constituted proxies or such other persons as the chairman of the meeting shall determine; (iv) restrictions on entry to the meeting after the time fixed for the commencement thereof; and (v) limitations on the time allotted to questions or comments by participants. The chairman of the meeting of stockholders, in addition to making any other determinations that may be appropriate to the conduct of the meeting, shall, if the facts warrant, determine and declare to the meeting that a nomination or matter of business was not properly brought before the meeting and if such chairman should so determine, such chairman shall so declare to the meeting and any such matter or business not properly brought before the meeting shall not be transacted or considered. Unless and to the extent determined by the Board of Directors or the chairman of the meeting, meetings of stockholders shall not be required to be held in accordance with the rules of parliamentary procedure.
               Section 1.8. Proxies; Inspectors .
          (a) At any meeting of the stockholders, every stockholder entitled to vote may vote in person or by proxy authorized by an instrument in writing or by a transmission permitted by applicable law.
          (b) Prior to a meeting of the stockholders of the Corporation, the Corporation shall appoint one or more inspectors to act at a meeting of stockholders of the Corporation and make a written report thereof. The Corporation may designate one or more persons as alternate inspectors to replace any inspector who





fails to act. If no inspector or alternate is able to act at a meeting of stockholders, the person presiding at the meeting may, and to the extent required by applicable law, shall, appoint one or more inspectors to act at the meeting. Each inspector, before beginning the discharge of his or her duties, shall take and sign an oath faithfully to execute the duties of inspector with strict impartiality and according to the best of his or her ability. The inspectors may appoint or retain other persons or entities to assist the inspectors in the performance of the duties of inspectors. The inspectors shall have the duties prescribed by applicable law.
               Section 1.9. Voting .
     Except as otherwise required by the rules or regulations of any stock exchange applicable to the Corporation or pursuant to any law or regulation applicable to the Corporation or its securities or by the Certificate of Incorporation or these bylaws, all matters other than the election of directors shall be determined by a majority of the votes cast on the matter affirmatively or negatively. All elections of directors shall be determined by a plurality of the votes cast.
               Section 1.10. Action by Written Consent .
     Except as otherwise provided in the Certificate of Incorporation, any action required or permitted to be taken by the stockholders of the Corporation may be effected by a consent in writing by such stockholders.
               Section 1.11. Stock List .
     A complete list of stockholders of the Corporation entitled to vote at any meeting of stockholders of the Corporation, arranged in alphabetical order for each class of stock and showing the address of each such stockholder and the number of shares registered in the name of such stockholder, shall be open to the examination of any such stockholder, for any purpose germane to a meeting of the stockholders of the Corporation, for a period of at least 10 days before the meeting (i) on a reasonably accessible electronic network, provided that the information required to gain access to such list is provided with the notice of the meeting or (ii) during ordinary business hours at the principal place of business of the Corporation; provided , however , if the record date for determining the stockholders entitled to vote is less than 10 days before the meeting date, the list shall reflect the stockholders entitled to vote as of the 10th day before such meeting date. If the meeting is to be held at a place, then a list of stockholders entitled to vote at the meeting shall be produced and kept at the time and place of the meeting during the whole time thereof and may be examined by any stockholder who is present. If the meeting is to be held solely by means of remote communication, then the list shall also be open to the examination of any stockholder during the whole time of the meeting on a reasonably accessible electronic network, and the information required to access such list shall be provided with the notice of the meeting.
     Except as otherwise provided by law, the stock ledger shall be the sole evidence of the identity of the stockholders entitled to vote at a meeting and the number of shares held by each stockholder.

SECTION 2 - BOARD OF DIRECTORS
               Section 2.1. General Powers and Qualifications of Directors .
     The business and affairs of the Corporation shall be managed by or under the direction of the Board of Directors. In addition to the powers and authorities these bylaws expressly confer upon them, the Board of Directors may exercise all such powers of the Corporation and do all such lawful acts and things as are not by the DGCL or by the Certificate of Incorporation or by these bylaws required to be exercised or done by the stockholders. Directors need not be stockholders of the Corporation to be qualified for election or service as a director of the Corporation.





               Section 2.2. Removal; Resignation .
     Except as otherwise provided for in the Certificate of Incorporation, any director or the entire Board of Directors may be removed, with or without cause, by the holders of a majority of the voting power of the Voting Stock, voting together as a single class. Any director may resign at any time upon notice given in writing, including by electronic transmission, to the Corporation.
               Section 2.3. Regular Meetings .
     Regular meetings of the Board of Directors shall be held at the place (if any), on the date and at the time as shall have been established by the Board of Directors and publicized among all directors. A notice of a regular meeting, the date of which has been so publicized, shall not be required.
               Section 2.4. Special Meetings .
     Special meetings of the Board of Directors may be called by the Chairman of the Board of Directors, the Chief Executive Officer of the Company, the Lead Director or by two or more directors then in office or, if the Board of Directors then includes a director nominated or designated for nomination by TPG or H&F, by any director nominated or designated for nomination by TPG or H&F and shall be held at the place, if any, on the date and at the time as he, she or they shall fix. Notice of the place, if any, date and time of each special meeting shall be given to each director either (a) by mailing written notice thereof not less than five days before the meeting, or (b) by telephone, facsimile or other means of electronic transmission providing notice thereof not less than twenty-four hours before the meeting. Any and all business may be transacted at a special meeting of the Board of Directors.
               Section 2.5. Quorum .
     At any meeting of the Board of Directors, a majority of the total number of directors then in office shall constitute a quorum for all purposes, provided that so long as the Sponsors collectively beneficially own (directly or indirectly) a majority of the voting power of the Corporation's Voting Stock, it shall be necessary to constitute a quorum, in addition to a majority of the total number of directors then in office (a) that one director nominated or designated for nomination by either TPG or H&F be present (other than attendance for the sole purpose of objecting to the transaction of any business because the meeting is not lawfully called or convened) and (b) for an action of the Board of Directors taken at a meeting to be valid, directors that constitute a quorum must be present at the time that the vote on such action is taken. For the avoidance of doubt, so long as the Sponsors collectively beneficially own (directly or indirectly) a majority of the voting power of the Corporation's Voting Stock, if directors that constitute a quorum are not present at the time that the vote on any action is taken, a quorum shall not be constituted with respect to such action, and any vote taken with respect to such action shall not be a valid action of the Board of Directors, notwithstanding that a quorum of the Board of Directors may have been present at the commencement of such meeting. If a quorum shall fail to attend any meeting, a majority of those present may adjourn the meeting to another place, if any, date or time, without further notice or waiver thereof.  
               Section 2.6. Participation in Meetings By Conference Telephone or Other Communications Equipment .
     Members of the Board of Directors, or of any committee thereof, may participate in a meeting of the Board of Directors or committee thereof by means of conference telephone or other communications equipment by means of which all directors participating in the meeting can hear each other director, and such participation shall constitute presence in person at the meeting.
               Section 2.7. Conduct of Business .
     At any meeting of the Board of Directors, business shall be transacted in the order and manner that the Board of Directors may from time to time determine, and all matters shall be determined by the vote of a majority of the directors present, provided a quorum is present at the time such matter is acted upon,





except as otherwise provided in the Certificate of Incorporation or these bylaws or required by applicable law. The Board of Directors or any committee thereof may take action without a meeting if all members thereof consent thereto in writing or by electronic transmission, and the writing or writings, or electronic transmission or electronic transmissions, are filed with the minutes of proceedings of the Board of Directors or any committee thereof. Such filing shall be in paper form if the minutes are maintained in paper form and shall be in electronic form if the minutes are maintained in electronic form.
               Section 2.8. Compensation of Directors .
     The Board of Directors shall be authorized to fix the compensation of directors. The directors of the Corporation shall be paid their expenses, if any, of attendance at each meeting of the Board of Directors and shall be reimbursed a fixed sum for attendance at each meeting of the Board of Directors, paid an annual retainer or paid other compensation, including equity compensation, as directors of the Corporation. No such payment shall preclude any director from serving the Corporation in any other capacity and receiving compensation therefor. Members of committees shall be paid compensation for attending committee meetings and/or have their expenses, if any, of attendance of each meeting of such committee reimbursed.
SECTION 3 - COMMITTEES
               Section 3.1. Committees of the Board of Directors .
     The Board of Directors may designate committees of the Board of Directors, with such lawfully delegable powers and duties as it thereby confers, to serve at the pleasure of the Board of Directors and shall, for those committees, appoint a director or directors to serve as the member or members, designating, if it desires, other directors as alternate members who may replace any absent or disqualified member at any meeting of such committee. In the absence or disqualification of any member of any committee and any alternate member in his or her place, the member or members of the committee present at the meeting and not disqualified from voting, whether or not he or she or they constitute a quorum, may by unanimous vote appoint another member of the Board of Directors to act at the meeting in the place of the absent or disqualified member. All provisions of this Section 3.1 are subject to, and nothing in this Section 3.1 shall in any way limit the exercise or method or timing of the exercise of, the rights of any person granted by the Corporation with respect to the existence, duties, composition or conduct of any committee of the Board of Directors.
SECTION 4 - OFFICERS
               Section 4.1. Generally .
     The officers of the Corporation shall consist of a President, one or more Vice Presidents, a Secretary, a Treasurer and other officers as may from time to time be appointed by the Board of Directors. Each officer shall hold office until his or her successor is elected and qualified or until his or her earlier resignation or removal. Any number of offices may be held by the same person. The salaries of officers appointed by the Board of Directors shall be fixed from time to time by the Board of Directors or a committee thereof or by the officers as may be designated by resolution of the Board of Directors.
               Section 4.2. President .
     Unless otherwise determined by the Board of Directors, the President shall be the Chief Executive Officer of the Corporation. Subject to the provisions of these bylaws and to the direction of the Board of Directors, he or she shall have the responsibility for the general management and control of the business and affairs of the Corporation and shall perform all duties and have all powers that are commonly incident to the office of chief executive or which are delegated to him or her by the Board of Directors. He or she





shall have the power to sign all stock certificates, contracts and other instruments of the Corporation that are authorized and shall have general supervision and direction of all of the other officers, employees and agents of the Corporation.
               Section 4.3. Vice President .
     Each Vice President shall have the powers and duties delegated to him or her by the Board of Directors or the President. One Vice President may be designated by the Board of Directors to perform the duties and exercise the powers of the President in the event of the President's absence or disability.
               Section 4.4. Treasurer .
     The Treasurer shall have the responsibility for maintaining the financial records of the Corporation. He or she shall make such disbursements of the funds of the Corporation as are authorized and shall render from time to time an account to the Board of Directors of all such transactions and of the financial condition of the Corporation. The Treasurer shall also perform other duties as the Board of Directors may from time to time prescribe.
               Section 4.5. Secretary .
     The Secretary shall issue all authorized notices for, and shall keep minutes of, all meetings of the stockholders and the Board of Directors. He or she shall have charge of the corporate books and shall perform other duties as the Board of Directors may from time to time prescribe.
               Section 4.6. Delegation of Authority .
     The Board of Directors may from time to time delegate the powers or duties of any officer to any other officer or agent, notwithstanding any provision hereof.
               Section 4.7. Removal .
     The Board of Directors may remove any officer of the Corporation at any time, with or without cause.
               Section 4.8. Action with Respect to Securities of Other Companies .
     Unless otherwise directed by the Board of Directors, the President, or any officer of the Corporation authorized by the President, shall have power to vote and otherwise act on behalf of the Corporation, in person or by proxy, at any meeting of stockholders or equityholders of, or with respect to any action of, stockholders or equityholders of any other entity in which the Corporation may hold securities and otherwise to exercise any and all rights and powers which the Corporation may possess by reason of its ownership of securities in such other entity.
SECTION 5 - STOCK
               Section 5.1. Certificates of Stock .
     Shares of the capital stock of the Corporation may be certificated or uncertificated, as provided in the DGCL. Stock certificates shall be signed by, or in the name of the Corporation by, (i) the chairman of the Board (if any) or the vice-chairman of the Board (if any), the President or a Vice President, and (ii) the Secretary or an Assistant Secretary, or the Treasurer or an Assistant Treasurer, certifying the number of shares owned by such stockholder. Any signatures on a certificate may be by facsimile.
               Section 5.2. Transfers of Stock .
     Transfers of stock shall be made only upon the transfer books of the Corporation kept at an office of the Corporation (within or without the State of Delaware) or by transfer agents designated to transfer shares of the stock of the Corporation.





               Section 5.3. Lost, Stolen or Destroyed Certificates.
     In the event of the loss, theft or destruction of any certificate of stock, another may be issued in its place pursuant to regulations as the Board of Directors may establish concerning proof of the loss, theft or destruction and concerning the giving of a satisfactory bond or indemnity.
               Section 5.4. Regulations .
     The issue, transfer, conversion and registration of certificates of stock of the Corporation shall be governed by other regulations as the Board of Directors may establish.
               Section 5.5. Record Date .
               (a) In order that the Corporation may determine the stockholders entitled to notice of any meeting of stockholders or any adjournment thereof, the Board of Directors may fix a record date, which record date shall not precede the date upon which the resolution fixing the record date is adopted by the Board of Directors, and which record date shall, unless otherwise required by law, not be more than sixty (60) nor less than ten (10) days before the date of such meeting. If the Board of Directors so fixes a date, such date shall also be the record date for determining the stockholders entitled to vote at such meeting unless the Board of Directors determines, at the time it fixes such record date, that a later date on or before the date of the meeting shall be the date for making such determination. If no record date is fixed by the Board of Directors, the record date for determining stockholders entitled to notice of or to vote at a meeting of stockholders shall be at the close of business on the day next preceding the day on which notice is given, or, if notice is waived, at the close of business on the day next preceding the day on which the meeting is held. A determination of stockholders of record entitled to notice of or to vote at a meeting of stockholders shall apply to any adjournment of the meeting; provided, however, that the Board of Directors may fix a new record date for determination of stockholders entitled to vote at the adjourned meeting, and in such case shall also fix as the record date for stockholders entitled to notice of such adjourned meeting the same or an earlier date as that fixed for determination of stockholders entitled to vote in accordance herewith at the adjourned meeting.
               (b) In order that the corporation may determine the stockholders entitled to receive payment of any dividend or other distribution or allotment of any rights, or entitled to exercise any rights in respect of any change, conversion or exchange of stock or for the purpose of any other lawful action, the Board of Directors may fix a record date, which shall not be more than sixty (60) days prior to such other action. If no such record date is fixed, the record date for determining stockholders for any such purpose shall be at the close of business on the day on which the Board of Directors adopts the resolution relating thereto.
SECTION 6 - INDEMNIFICATION AND ADVANCEMENT OF EXPENSES
               Section 6.1. Indemnification .
     The Corporation shall indemnify and hold harmless, to the fullest extent permitted by applicable law as it presently exists or may hereafter be amended, any person (an “ Indemnitee ”) who was or is made, or is threatened to be made, a party or is otherwise involved in any action, suit or proceeding, whether civil, criminal, administrative or investigative (a “ Proceeding ”), by reason of the fact that he or she, or a person for whom he or she is the legal representative, is or was a director or an officer of the Corporation or, while a director or an officer of the Corporation, is or was serving at the request of the Corporation as a director, officer, employee, member, trustee or agent of another corporation or of a partnership, joint venture, trust, nonprofit entity or other enterprise (including, but not limited to, service with respect to employee benefit plans) (any such entity, an “ Other Entity ”), against all liability and loss suffered (including, but not limited to, expenses (including, but not limited to, attorneys' fees and expenses), judgments, fines and amounts paid in settlement actually and reasonably incurred by such Indemnitee in





connection with such Proceeding). Notwithstanding the preceding sentence, the Corporation shall be required to indemnify an Indemnitee in connection with a Proceeding (or part thereof) commenced by such Indemnitee only if the commencement of such Proceeding (or part thereof) by the Indemnitee was authorized by the Board of Directors of the Corporation or the Proceeding (or part thereof) relates to the enforcement of the Corporation's obligations under this Section 6.1.
               Section 6.2. Advancement of Expenses .
     The Corporation shall to the fullest extent not prohibited by applicable law pay the expenses (including, but not limited to, attorneys' fees and expenses) incurred by an Indemnitee in defending any proceeding in advance of its final disposition, provided , however , that, to the extent required by law, such payment of expenses in advance of the final disposition of the proceeding shall be made only upon receipt of an undertaking by the Indemnitee to repay all amounts advanced if it should be ultimately determined that the Indemnitee is not entitled to be indemnified under this Section 6 or otherwise.
               Section 6.3. Claims .
     If a claim for indemnification (following the final disposition of such proceeding) or advancement of expenses under this Section 6 is not paid in full within sixty (60) days after a written claim therefor by the Indemnitee has been received by the Corporation, the Indemnitee may file suit to recover the unpaid amount of such claim and, if successful in whole or in part, shall be entitled to be paid the expense of prosecuting such claim to the fullest extent permitted by law. In any such action the Corporation shall have the burden of proving that the Indemnitee is not entitled to the requested indemnification or advancement of expenses under applicable law.
               Section 6.4. Insurance .
     The Corporation shall purchase and maintain insurance on behalf of any person who is or was a director, officer, trustee, employee or agent of the Corporation, or was serving at the request of the Corporation as a director, officer, trustee, employee or agent of an Other Entity, against any liability asserted against the person and incurred by the person in any such capacity, or arising out of his or her status as such, whether or not the Corporation would have the power or the obligation to indemnify such person against such liability under the provisions of this Section 6.
               Section 6.5. Non-Exclusivity of Rights .
     The rights conferred on any Indemnitee by this Section 6 are not exclusive of other rights arising under any bylaw, agreement, vote of directors or stockholders or otherwise, and shall inure to the benefit of the heirs and legal representatives of such Indemnitee.
               Section 6.6. Amounts Received from an Other Entity .
     Subject to Section 6.7, the Corporation's obligation, if any, to indemnify or to advance expenses to any Indemnitee who was or is serving at the Corporation's request as a director, officer, employee, member, trustee or agent of an Other Entity shall be reduced by any amount such Indemnitee may collect as indemnification or advancement of expenses from such Other Entity.
               Section 6.7. Indemnification Priority .
     As between the Corporation and any other person (other than an entity directly or indirectly controlled by the Corporation) who provide indemnification to the Indemnitees for their service to, or on behalf of, the Corporation (collectively, the “ Secondary Indemnitors ”) (i) the Corporation shall be the full indemnitor of first resort in respect of indemnification or advancement of expenses in connection with any Jointly Indemnifiable Claims (as defined below), pursuant to and in accordance with the terms of this Section 6, irrespective of any right of indemnification, advancement of expenses or other right of recovery any Indemnitee may have from any Secondary Indemnitor (i.e., the Corporation's obligations to such





Indemnitees are primary and any obligation of any Secondary Indemnitor to advance expenses or to provide indemnification for the same loss or liability incurred by such Indemnitees is secondary to the Corporation's obligations), (ii) the Corporation shall be required to advance the full amount of expenses incurred by any such Indemnitee and shall be liable for the full amount of all liability and loss suffered by such Indemnitee (including, but not limited to, expenses (including, but not limited to, attorneys' fees and expenses), judgments, fines and amounts paid in settlement actually and reasonably incurred by such Indemnitee in connection with such Proceeding), without regard to any rights any such Indemnitee may have against any Secondary Indemnitor, and (iii) the Corporation irrevocably waives, relinquishes and releases each Secondary Indemnitor from any and all claims against such Secondary Indemnitor for contribution, subrogation or any other recovery of any kind in respect thereof. The Corporation shall indemnify each Secondary Indemnitor directly for any amounts that such Secondary Indemnitor pays as indemnification or advancement on behalf of any such Indemnitee and for which such Indemnitee may be entitled to indemnification from the Corporation in connection with Jointly Indemnifiable Claims. No right of indemnification, advancement of expenses or other right of recovery that an Indemnitee may have from any Secondary Indemnitor shall reduce or otherwise alter the rights of the Indemnitee or the obligations of the Corporation hereunder. No advancement or payment by any Secondary Indemnitor on behalf of any such Indemnitee with respect to any claim for which such Indemnitee has sought indemnification from the Corporation shall affect the foregoing and the Secondary Indemnitors shall be subrogated to the extent of such advancement or payment to all of the rights of recovery of such Indemnitee against the Corporation. Each Indemnitee shall execute all papers reasonably required and shall do all things that may be reasonably necessary to secure the rights of such Indemnitee's Secondary Indemnitors under this Section 6.7, including the execution of such documents as may be necessary to enable the Secondary Indemnitors effectively to bring suit to enforce such rights, including in the right of the Corporation. Each of the Secondary Indemnitors shall be third-party beneficiaries with respect to this Section 6.7, entitled to enforce this Section 6.7. As used in this Section 6.7, the term “Jointly Indemnifiable Claims” shall be broadly construed and shall include, without limitation, any action, suit, proceeding or other matter for which an Indemnitee shall be entitled to indemnification or advancement of expenses from both a Secondary Indemnitor and the Corporation, whether pursuant to Delaware law, any agreement or certificate of incorporation, bylaws, partnership agreement, operating agreement, certificate of formation, certificate of limited partnership or comparable organizational documents of the Corporation or the Secondary Indemnitors, as applicable.
               Section 6.8. Amendment or Repeal .
     Any right to indemnification or to advancement of expenses of any Indemnitee arising hereunder shall not be eliminated or impaired by an amendment to or repeal of this Section 6 after the occurrence of the act or omission that is the subject of the civil, criminal, administrative or investigative action, suit, proceeding or other matter for which indemnification or advancement of expenses is sought.
               Section 6.9. Other Indemnification and Advancement of Expenses .
     This Section 6 shall not limit the right of the Corporation, to the extent and in the manner permitted by law, to indemnify and to advance expenses to persons other than Indemnitees when and as authorized by appropriate corporate action.
               Section 6.10. Reliance .
     Indemnitees who after the date of the adoption of this Section 6 become or remain an Indemnitee described in Section 6.1 will be conclusively presumed to have relied on the rights to indemnity, advancement of expenses and other rights contained in this Section 6 in entering into or continuing the service. The rights to indemnification and to the advancement of expenses conferred in this Section 6 will apply to claims made against any Indemnitee described in Section 6.1 arising out of acts or omissions that





occurred or occur either before or after the adoption of this Section 6 in respect of service as a director or officer of the corporation or other service described in Section 6.1.
SECTION 7 - NOTICES
               Section 7.1. Notices .
     Except as otherwise provided herein or permitted by applicable law, notices to directors and stockholders shall be in writing and delivered personally or mainlined to the directors or stockholders at their addresses appearing on the books of the Corporation. If mailed, notice to a stockholder of the Corporation shall be deemed given when deposited in the mail, postage prepaid, directed to a stockholder at such stockholder's address as it appears on the records of the Corporation. Without limiting the manner by which notice otherwise may be given effectively to stockholders, any notice to stockholders of the Corporation may be given by electronic transmission in the manner provided in Section 232 of the DGCL.
               Section 7.2. Waivers .
     A written waiver of any notice, signed by a stockholder or director, or a waiver by electronic transmission by such person or entity, whether given before or after the time of the event for which notice is to be given, shall be deemed equivalent to the notice required to be given to such person or entity. Neither the business nor the purpose of any meeting need be specified in the waiver. Attendance at any meeting shall constitute waiver of notice except attendance for the sole purpose of objecting, at the beginning of the meeting, to the transaction of any business because the meeting is not lawfully called or convened.
SECTION 8 - MISCELLANEOUS
               Section 8.1. Corporate Seal .
     The Board of Directors may provide a suitable seal, containing the name of the Corporation, which seal shall be in the charge of the Secretary. If and when so directed by the Board of Directors, duplicates of the seal may be kept and used by the Treasurer or by an Assistant Secretary or Assistant Treasurer.
               Section 8.2. Reliance upon Books, Reports, and Records .
     Each director and each member of any committee designated by the Board of Directors of the Corporation shall, in the performance of his or her duties, be fully protected in relying in good faith upon the books and records of the Corporation and upon such information, opinions, reports or statements presented to the Corporation by any of its officers, agents or employees, or committees of the Board of Directors so designated, or by any other person or entity as to matters which such director or committee member reasonably believes are within such other person's or entity's professional or expert competence and that has been selected with reasonable care by or on behalf of the Corporation.
               Section 8.3. Fiscal Year .
     The fiscal year of the Corporation shall be as fixed by the Board of Directors.
               Section 8.4. Time Periods.
     In applying any provision of these bylaws that requires that an act be done or not be done a specified number of days before an event or that an act be done during a specified number of days before an event, calendar days shall be used, the day of the doing of the act shall be excluded, and the day of the event shall be included.





SECTION 9 - AMENDMENTS
     These bylaws may be altered, amended or repealed in accordance with the Certificate of Incorporation and the DGCL.